Next Step in Modi 3.0: From UPI to United Health Initiative
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Next Step in Modi 3.0: From UPI to United Health Initiative

As India enters the era of Modi 3.0, the country is on the cusp of a healthcare revolution. The recent election results have validated the country’s belief in Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of a digitally empowered India. Building on the transformational success of initiatives like UPI, it is time to imagine the next frontier: the Unified Health Initiative (UHI), which leverages the power of AI and digital tools to revolutionize the healthcare landscape in India.

UPI (Mint file)

India’s healthcare system faces enormous challenges—a severe shortage of doctors, huge language and education barriers, and inconsistent access to high-quality medicines. But amid these challenges, a new wave of innovation powered by artificial intelligence (AI) offers unprecedented hope.

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The economic potential of AI in healthcare is significant. While exact numbers are hard to predict, experts agree that AI has the potential to transform India’s healthcare sector over the next decade. It’s not just about market growth; it’s a fundamental shift in healthcare delivery and access across India. AI has the potential to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and improve patient outcomes. From accelerating drug development to enabling more accurate diagnoses, the impact of AI in healthcare has the potential to contribute significantly to India’s overall economic growth and development, potentially positioning India as a global leader in health technology innovation.

Across the country, startups and institutions are using AI to revolutionize various aspects of healthcare. In the diagnostics space, AI algorithms are being deployed to screen for diseases like cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and cardiovascular disease. For example, Tata Medical Centre and the Indian Institute of Technology have launched a zero-identity cancer image bank that uses AI to detect biomarkers and improve cancer research outcomes.

In the pharmaceutical sector, companies like PharmEasy are using machine learning and big data to improve pharmacy services, connecting more than 80,000 pharmacies in 1,200 cities and serving five million customers. Meanwhile, companies like SigTuple Technologies are automating the analysis of medical data, improving the accuracy and efficiency of diagnostics, especially in areas where specialists are in short supply.

AI’s impact extends beyond diagnostics and pharmaceuticals. In clinical trials, AI is significantly improving efficiency by accelerating design, increasing adherence, facilitating patient recruitment, and reducing dropouts. This acceleration in clinical trials is critical to drug discovery and development, potentially reducing the time and cost of bringing new treatments to market.

Even in the operating room, AI is making its presence felt. The growing segment of robotic surgery, fueled by increased funding and AI platform development, is improving surgical precision, shortening recovery times, and improving patient outcomes.

As an advisor to the innovative Apna Vaidya project, I have witnessed first-hand the transformative potential of AI in healthcare. The initiative integrates AI with WhatsApp to offer a comprehensive health assistant bot. Apna Vaidya answers common medical questions, helps users find doctors, provides information about medications, and offers guidance on insurance and other healthcare-related questions. Using a platform that is already widely used in India, it makes key health information and services available to millions of people, regardless of their location or technical expertise. It is a prime example of how AI can address healthcare challenges in India, especially in areas where access to medical specialists or health information may be limited.

The Indian government has not been a passive observer of this digital health revolution. Initiatives like the National Digital Health Mission (NDHM) and the Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission (ABDM) are commendable steps towards a digitally enabled healthcare ecosystem. The proposed National Health Stack aims to facilitate interoperability of healthcare data between providers and increase efficiency in healthcare delivery through digital platforms – a digital circulatory system for our country’s health information.

Building on these efforts, we need a comprehensive UHI. This initiative should be ambitious in scope but practical in execution. Building on UPI’s success in revolutionizing digital payments, UHI should aim to create a similarly transformative impact on healthcare. Here’s what this initiative should include:

  • A national digital health platform to securely share medical data between providers. It would create a seamless flow of information, ensuring that a patient’s medical history is always at the fingertips of healthcare providers, regardless of location.
  • AI-powered tools for diagnosis, treatment recommendations, and personalized health advice. These tools can act as a force multiplier for our healthcare workforce, increasing its capabilities and expanding its reach.
  • Telemedicine services to improve access to healthcare in remote areas, in line with the government’s focus on reaching underserved populations. This could bridge the urban-rural healthcare divide, providing high-quality medical consultations in the most remote corners of India.
  • Smart pharmacies with AI-powered inventory management and quality control. This would ensure medicines are available where and when they are needed, reducing waste and potentially saving lives.
  • Digital education programs to empower individuals to effectively use health technology tools. This is crucial to ensure that the benefits of digital health reach all segments of our society, not just the technology-savvy urban population.

These UHI components, working in tandem, could revolutionize healthcare delivery in India, much like UPI transformed our financial transactions. But the path to this digital health utopia is not without its challenges. India’s digital divide is a complex issue that combines factors like socioeconomic status, education levels, and cultural attitudes toward technology. While urban areas boast internet penetration rates of over 70%, rural areas lag behind at around 32%. This disparity, compounded by varying levels of digital literacy, poses a significant obstacle to equitable implementation of digital health initiatives.

Data privacy is another critical issue. The sensitive nature of health data requires robust protection measures, but implementing them in a diverse and fragmented healthcare system is daunting. Issues such as consent management, data localization, and the right to be forgotten require careful consideration in the Indian context. Potential data breaches or misuse can undermine public trust in digital health initiatives, making it crucial to balance innovation with rigorous safeguards.

Overcoming these challenges can provide valuable lessons from global AI-based healthcare initiatives. Estonia’s e-Health system, which has successfully digitized 99% of medical records and e-prescriptions, demonstrates the potential of a comprehensive digital health infrastructure. Their system puts data security and interoperability first, offering a model for efficient and secure health information management.

The rapid integration of AI into healthcare in China, exemplified by companies like Ping A Good Doctor, shows the potential scale of AI-assisted diagnostic systems. But it also underscores the need for careful regulation to prevent overreliance on AI and ensure human oversight of critical medical decisions.

The UK’s NHS AI Lab provides a framework for responsible AI development in healthcare, with an emphasis on ethical considerations and equitable access. Their focus on “AI for inclusive innovation” can guide India’s efforts to ensure AI-based healthcare solutions reach all segments of our diverse population.

As we enter this new era in Indian healthcare, the potential of AI-powered UHI and digital tools is both exciting and challenging. The journey ahead requires a collaborative effort by policymakers, healthcare providers, technologists and citizens. We need to invest in digital infrastructure and literacy programs, develop strong data protection laws, foster public-private partnerships, ensure inclusiveness in AI tool development and continuously evaluate and refine our approach based on real-world outcomes.

The success of initiatives like UPI has shown that India can lead the world in digital innovation. Now is the time to bring that same spirit of innovation to healthcare. By doing so, we can not only transform our country’s health outcomes but also provide a model for other developing countries grappling with similar challenges.

The mandate is clear, the technology is ready, and the need is urgent. Let us seize this opportunity to create a healthier, more equitable future for all Indians. The time for UHI is now.

This article was written by Ashwin Gopinath, MIT professor, co-founder and CTO of